Friday, 18 August 2017


The first is the determination of the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), which can be done only in specialized centers with the appropriate instrumentation. The VO2max is determined performing a test with a cicloergometer, breathing through a tube, connected to a machine that measures the amount of oxygen inhalated and the CO2 exhalated and the heart rate.

 The second is based only on the measure of heart rate, which is proportional to VO2max (Cooper test and Karvonen test). This measurement does not have the same precision of spirometry and tables reporting the heart rate intervals are based on statistical data defined by gender and age, thus they are coarse. Currently, the measurement of heart rate is the most common practice to monitor non-competitive training.

 Measuring the level of lactate (lactate threshold or anaerobic threshold) is the best parameter to predict and to monitor during time the endurance performance and it is the most used parameter at competitive level. This measure is currently invasive and requires the measure of lactic acid in blood.